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ls --help

게시판 질문게시판 ls --help

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     ls --help
    Usage: ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...
    List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).
    Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort.

    Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
      -a, --all                  do not ignore entries starting with .
      -A, --almost-all           do not list implied . and ..
          --author               with -l, print the author of each file
      -b, --escape               print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters
          --block-size=SIZE      use SIZE-byte blocks.  See SIZE format below
      -B, --ignore-backups       do not list implied entries ending with ~
      -c                         with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last
                                   modification of file status information)
                                   with -l: show ctime and sort by name
                                   otherwise: sort by ctime
      -C                         list entries by columns
          --color[=WHEN]         colorize the output.  WHEN defaults to `always'
                                   or can be `never' or `auto'.  More info below
      -d, --directory            list directory entries instead of contents,
                                   and do not dereference symbolic links
      -D, --dired                generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode
      -f                         do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color
      -F, --classify             append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries
          --file-type            likewise, except do not append `*'
          --format=WORD          across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l,
                                   single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C
          --full-time            like -l --time-style=full-iso
      -g                         like -l, but do not list owner
                                 group directories before files.
                                   augment with a --sort option, but any
                                   use of --sort=none (-U) disables grouping
      -G, --no-group             in a long listing, don't print group names
      -h, --human-readable       with -l, print sizes in human readable format
                                   (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
          --si                   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
      -H, --dereference-command-line
                                 follow symbolic links listed on the command line
                                 follow each command line symbolic link
                                 that points to a directory
          --hide=PATTERN         do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
                                   (overridden by -a or -A)
          --indicator-style=WORD  append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
                                   none (default), slash (-p),
                                   file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)
      -i, --inode                print the index number of each file
      -I, --ignore=PATTERN       do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
      -k                         like --block-size=1K
      -l                         use a long listing format
      -L, --dereference          when showing file information for a symbolic
                                   link, show information for the file the link
                                   references rather than for the link itself
      -m                         fill width with a comma separated list of entries
      -n, --numeric-uid-gid      like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs
      -N, --literal              print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control
                                   characters specially)
      -o                         like -l, but do not list group information
      -p, --indicator-style=slash
                                 append / indicator to directories
      -q, --hide-control-chars   print ? instead of non graphic characters
          --show-control-chars   show non graphic characters as-is (default
                                 unless program is `ls' and output is a terminal)
      -Q, --quote-name           enclose entry names in double quotes
          --quoting-style=WORD   use quoting style WORD for entry names:
                                   literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape
      -r, --reverse              reverse order while sorting
      -R, --recursive            list subdirectories recursively
      -s, --size                 print the allocated size of each file, in blocks
      -S                         sort by file size
          --sort=WORD            sort by WORD instead of name: none -U,
                                 extension -X, size -S, time -t, version -v
          --time=WORD            with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification
                                 time: atime -u, access -u, use -u, ctime -c,
                                 or status -c; use specified time as sort key
                                 if --sort=time
          --time-style=STYLE     with -l, show times using style STYLE:
                                 full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, +FORMAT.
                                 FORMAT is interpreted like `date'; if FORMAT is
                                 FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to
                                 non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files;
                                 if STYLE is prefixed with `posix-', STYLE
                                 takes effect only outside the POSIX locale
      -t                         sort by modification time
      -T, --tabsize=COLS         assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
      -u                         with -lt: sort by, and show, access time
                                   with -l: show access time and sort by name
                                   otherwise: sort by access time
      -U                         do not sort; list entries in directory order
      -v                         natural sort of (version) numbers within text
      -w, --width=COLS           assume screen width instead of current value
      -x                         list entries by lines instead of by columns
      -X                         sort alphabetically by entry extension
      -1                         list one file per line

    SELinux options:

      --lcontext                 Display security context.   Enable -l. Lines
                                 will probably be too wide for most displays.
      -Z, --context              Display security context so it fits on most
                                 displays.  Displays only mode, user, group,
                                 security context and file name.
      --scontext                 Display only security context and file name.
          --help     display this help and exit
          --version  output version information and exit

    SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of following:
    KB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.

    Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and
    with --color=never.  With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when
    standard output is connected to a terminal.  The LS_COLORS environment
    variable can change the settings.  Use the dircolors command to set it.

    Exit status:
     0  if OK,
     1  if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),
     2  if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

    Report ls bugs to
    GNU coreutils home page: <>
    General help using GNU software: <>
    For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'ls invocation'

    > ls -la |more

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